Most of them are so small that they lie beyond the reach of natural eyes to see them, yet the complex chemistry that gives life to all cells is based largely on the properties of water and the four organic molecules. Membranes form spontaneously like bubbles of soap, producing not only the plasma membrane that defines the cell, but also internal compartments found in many cells (Eukaryotic cells), that add efficieny to their workings. Most organelles are involved in producing and processing Proteins; some act lie internal stomachs, digesting contents brought into the cell; chloroplasts capture the sun's energy to make sugars, and mitochondria break down these sugars to produce ATP - the directy energy source for most endergonic processes; and at the center of it all is a library of sorts, the Nucleus, storing DNA encoded information that is used for making the proteins responsible for most of the activity of a cell.Genetics is ubiquitous in our modern society. Beyond determining whether someone inherited her earlobes from mom or dad, and predicting the likelihood that she will reach six feet, one's DNA can be used to trace her ancestry, inform treatment for diseases, and catch her in the act of a crime. Methods ancient and modern have modified the genetics of virtually everything we eat. We are able to use bacteria to produce human proteins such as insulin, modify the DNA of individual cells, understand the marvel of embryonic development, clone adult organisms, and and establish the evolutionary relationships among all life on this planet - all because of genetics. Not to mention the Pandora's box of ethical considerations these methods for manipulating DNA have opened.
Study Guides to help prepare students for quizzes and exams.
Students should treat these guides as practice quizzes/tests: Review your notes and other materials from class, then take a break. After a while, come back to these study guides and, without reviewing or looking at your notes
respond as fully as possible in writing
to define each vocabulary word, and answer each short-answer objective. If you don't know an answer, or are unsure, mark it as as a reminder of such to yourself, and then continue without reviewing your notes. When you have worked through the entire study guide, then go back to your notes and check your work. Your next round of studies should focus on what you didn't know or were unsure of. Repeat as time allows!09 Membranes Cells and Transport10 Photosynthesis11 Respiration12 Central Dogma13 Cell Classes and Cell Division